Grammar / verb / phrasal verbs

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phrasal verbs - افعال چند بخشی

Phrasal Verbs – افعال چند بخشی

Phrasal verbs are part of a large group of verbs called "multi-word verbs". Phrasal verbs and other multi-word verbs are an important part of the English language. Multi-word verbs, including phrasal verbs, are very common, especially in spoken English.

A multi-word verb is a verb like "pick up", "turn on" or "get on with".

These verbs consist of a basic verb + another word or words. The other word(s) can be prepositions(حرف اضافه) and/or adverbs. The two or three words that make up multi-word verbs form a short "phrase" - which is why these verbs are often all called "phrasal verbs".

The important thing to remember is that a multi-word verb is still a verb. "Get" is a verb. "Get up", is also a verb, a different verb. "Get" and "get up" are two different verbs. They do not have the same meaning. So you should treat each multi-word verb as a separate verb, and learn it like any other verb.

توجه کنید که get با get up هیچ شباهت معنایی ندارند. درسته که تو هر 2 این افعال، "get" وجود دارد، اما get up از لحاظ معنایی کاملاً متمایز است.

Look at these examples. You can see that there are three types of multi-word verb:

single-word verb

look

direct your eyes in a certain direction

You must look before you leap.

multi-word verbs

prepositional verbs

look after

take care of

Who is looking after the baby?

phrasal verbs

look up

search for and find information in a reference book

You can look up my number in the telephone directory.

phrasal-prepositional verbs

look forward to

anticipate with pleasure

I look forward to meeting you.

Like many grammar books, we divide multi-word verbs into:

  • prepositional verbs
  • phrasal verbs
  • phrasal-prepositional verbs

Other grammars, however, call all multi-word verbs "phrasal verbs".

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs are made of:

verb + adverb

Phrasal verbs can be:

  • intransitive (no direct object) - لازم
  • transitive (direct object) - متعدی

Here are some examples of phrasal verbs:


phrasal verbs

meaning

examples

direct object

intransitive phrasal verbs

get up

rise from bed

I don't like to get up.

break down

cease to function

He was late because his car broke down.

transitive phrasal verbs

put off

postpone

We will have to put off

the meeting.

turn down

refuse

They turned down

my offer.

Separable Phrasal Verbs

When phrasal verbs are transitive (that is, they have a direct object), we can usually separate the two parts. For example, "turn down" is a separable phrasal verb. We can say: "turn down my offer" or "turn my offer down".

می توان مفعول جمله را بین افعال چند بخشی یا بعد از آن نوشت.

توجه کنید که که افعال چند بخشی در این مورد متعدی هستند (به مفعول نیاز دارند).

Look at this table:

transitive phrasal verbs are
separable


They

turned

down

my offer.


They

turned

my offer

down .

However, if the direct object is a pronoun, we have no choice. We must separate the phrasal verb and insert the pronoun between the two parts.

اما اگر مفعول جمله "ضمیر" باشد، حتماً باید ضمیر بین فعل چند بخشی آورده شود. ضمیر(دارای نقش مفعول) نمیتواند بعد از فعل چند بخشی بیاید.

توجه کنید که که افعال چند بخشی در این مورد متعدی هستند (به مفعول نیاز دارند).

Look at this example with the separable phrasal verb "switch on":

direct object pronouns must go between the two parts of transitive phrasal verbs


John

switched

on

the radio.

These are all possible.


John

switched

the radio

on .


John

switched

it

on .


John

switched


on

it.

This is not possible.

Separable or inseparable phrasal verbs? Some dictionaries tell you when phrasal verbs are separable. If a dictionary writes "look (something) up", you know that the phrasal verb "look up" is separable, and you can say "look something up" and "look up something". It's a good idea to write "something/somebody" as appropriate in your vocabulary book when you learn a new phrasal verb, like this:

  • get up
  • break down
  • put something/somebody off
  • turn sthg/sby down

This tells you whether the verb needs a direct object (and where to put it).

Prepositional Verbs

Prepositional verbs are made of:

verb + preposition

Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct objects. Here are some examples of prepositional verbs:

حرف اضافه همیشه به مفعول نیاز دارد، در نتیجه این دسته از افعال چند بخشی همیشه "متعدی" هستند.

prepositional verbs

meaning

examples

direct object

believe in

have faith in the existence of

I believe in

God.

look after

take care of

He is looking after

the dog.

talk about

discuss

Did you talk about

me?

wait for

await

John is waiting for

Mary.

Prepositional verbs cannot be separated. That means that we cannot put the direct object between the two parts. For example, we must say "look after the baby". We cannot say "look the baby after":

در این دسته از افعال چند بخشی به خاطر اینکه قسمت دوم فعل، حرف اضافه میباشد باید مفعول جمله بعد از حرف اضافه قرار بگیرد.{جدا نشدنی هستند}

prepositional verbs are inseparable


Who is looking after the baby?

This is possible.


Who is looking the baby after?

This is not possible.

It is a good idea to write "something/somebody" in your vocabulary book when you learn a new prepositional verb, like this:

  • believe in something/somebody
  • look after sthg/sby

This reminds you that this verb needs a direct object (and where to put it).

Phrasal-prepositional Verbs

Phrasal-prepositional verbs are made of:

verb + adverb + preposition

Look at these examples of phrasal-prepositional verbs:

phrasal-prepositional verbs

meaning

examples

direct object

get on with

have a friendly relationship with

He doesn't get on with

his wife.

put up with

tolerate

I won't put up with

your attitude.

look forward to

anticipate with pleasure

I look forward to

seeing you.

run out of

use up, exhaust

We have run out of

eggs.

Because phrasal-prepositional verbs end with a preposition, there is always a direct object. And, like prepositional verbs, phrasal-prepositional verbs cannot be separated. Look at these examples:

این دسته از افعال چندبخشی نیز به حرف اضافه ختم میشوند در نتیجه همیشه "متعدی" هستند و مفعول باید بعد از حرف اضافه قرار گیرد.{جدا نشدنی}

phrasal-prepositional verbs are
inseparable


We

ran out of

fuel.


We

ran out of

it.

Go Up

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