Grammar / verb tenses / present perfect continuous tense

گرامر / زمان افعال / زمان حال کامل استمراری

present perfect continuous tense - زمان حال کامل استمراری

Present Perfect Continuous Tense – زمان حال کامل استمراری

I have been singing

How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:

subject

+

auxiliary verb

+

auxiliary verb

+

main verb

have
has

been

base + ing

Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense:

subject

auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

+

I

have

been

waiting

for one hour.

+

You

have

been

talking

too much.

-

It

has

not

been

raining.

-

We

have

not

been

playing

football.

?

Have

you

been

seeing

her?

?

Have

they

been

doing

their homework?

Contractions (مختصر کردن)

When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have been

I've been

You have been

You've been

He has been
She has been
It has been
John has been
The car has been

He's been
She's been
It's been
John's been
The car's been

We have been

We've been

They have been

They've been

Here are some examples:

  • I've been reading.
  • The car's been giving trouble.
  • We've been playing tennis for two hours.
How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a connection with the present or now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense:

1. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now.

"عمل" در گذشته شروع شده و به تازگی(نزدیک به زمان حال) تمام شده، اما اثر آن الان (در زمان مکالمه) ایجاد شده.

I'm tired because I've been running.

past

present

future


!!!


Recent action.

Result now.

  • I'm tired [now] because I've been running.
  • Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining?
  • You don't understand [now] because you haven't been listening.
2. An action continuing up to now

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since.

از زمان گذشته "عمل" شروع شده و تا زمان حال نیز ادامه داشته است.

I have been reading for 2 hours.

past

present

future



Action started in past.

Action is continuing now.

  • I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.]
  • We've been studying since 9 o'clock. [We're still studying now.]
  • How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now.]
  • We have not been smoking. [And we are not smoking now.]
For and Since with Present Perfect Continuous Tense

مانند زمان حال کامل از for و since برای زمان حال کامل استمراری نیز استفاده میشود.

Here are some examples:

  • I have been studying for 3 hours.
  • I have been watching TV since 7pm.
  • Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks.
  • Tara hasn't been visiting us since March.
  • He has been playing football for a long time.
  • He has been living in Bangkok since he left school.
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