Grammar / active or passive voice / active - passive voice

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active or passive voice
active - passive voice - معلوم و مجهول

Active Voice, Passive Voice – معلوم و مجهول

جملات معلوم: فاعل در ابتدای جمله - فاعل مهم است

John hits Mike. --- فاعل

جملات مجهول: مفعول ابتدای جمله - فاعل مهم نیست / نامشخص - مفعول برای ما مهم هستن

Mike is hit. -- مفعول

 

There are two forms for verbs called voice:

  1. Active voice – معلوم
  2. Passive voice - مجهول

The active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb:

active            

subject -فاعل

verb - فعل

object - مفعول

Cats

eat

fish.

The passive voice is less usual:

passive

object

verb

subject

Fish

are eaten

by cats.

* به محل قرار گرفتن فاعل و مفعول دقت کنید:

 

subject

verb

object

active

Cat

drinks

water .

passive

Water

is drunk

by cat.

 
Passive Voice

The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. 

 

1. Construction of the Passive Voice - نحوه ساخت جملات مجهول

 

ساختار جملات مجهول بسیار ساده است:

object + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)

 (اسم مفعول) فعل اصلی + فعل کمکی (مشتقات be) + مفعول

* The main verb is always in its past participle form.

 

 

Examples

object

auxiliary verb (to be)

 منفی

main verb (past participle)

 subject

Water

is

 

drunk

by everyone.

100 people

are

 

employed

by this company.

I

am

 

paid

in euro.

We

are

not

paid

in dollars.

Are

they

 

paid

in yen?

 

2. Use (\'yüs\) of the Passive Voice - موارد استفاده جملات مجهول

 

We use (\'yüz\) the passive when:

  • we want to make the object more important --- مفعول مهم تر است
  • we do not know the subject --- فاعل نامشخص است
 دلیل

subject

verb

object

give importance to active object (President Kennedy)

President Kennedy

was killed

by Lee Harvey Oswald.

active subject unknown

My wallet

has been stolen.

?

 

* Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).

** But for objects we use with.

Look at this sentence:

  • He was killed with a gun.

Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer".

 
3. Conjugation for the Passive Voice - صرف فعل جملات مجهول در زمان های مختلف

We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. So, for example:

  • present simple: It is made
  • present continuous: It is being made
  • present perfect: It has been made

 

Example

infinitive

to be washed

simple

present

It is washed.

past

It was washed.

future

It will be washed.

conditional

It would be washed.

continuous

present

It is being washed.

past

It was being washed.

future

It will be being washed.

conditional

It would be being washed.

perfect simple

present

It has been washed.

past

It had been washed.

future

It will have been washed.

conditional

It would have been washed.

perfect continuous

present

It has been being washed.

past

It had been being washed.

future

It will have been being washed.

conditional

It would have been being washed.

 

 

 

 

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